Construction machines are machines used in the construction industry to perform various tasks. These machines are used in construction projects for digging, material handling, workarounds, lifting loads and more. Construction machinery reduces construction speeds, labor and increases benefits.
The working principle of construction machines varies depending on each type of machine and its use. But in general, construction machines move depending on the power source and walking mechanisms whose purpose is to use them to perform a particular task.
Many construction machines draw energy from power sources such as internal combustion engines or electric motors. This power source drives the machine's moving mechanisms and starting. For example, hydraulic systems are used in excavators. The internal combustion engine drives the hydraulic pumps and somehow supplies the hydraulic fluid with high components. This hydraulic pressure is used to control the excavator's arms, bucket and other moving mechanism.
Construction machinery is often controlled by operators. The operator steers and moves the machine using joysticks, pedals, buttons or other control controls. These controls perform the desired action by activating certain features or functions of the machine.
Since construction machines have powerful and complex mechanisms, the training and experience of operators is of great importance. Proper use and the use of safe operating principles are critical to both gaining operators' authorization and ensuring peak performance of the machine.
Types and Functions of Construction Machinery
There are many different types of construction machinery used in the construction industry. Each machine is designed to perform a specific job. Here are some common construction machine types and components:
- Excavators: Digging ground, trenching, material loading and transport components are used. Usually gauges with hydraulic arms and buckets.
- Cranes: They are mainly used for lifting, carrying and placing heavy loads. Uses in high-rise buildings or large lifting costs on construction sites.
- Bulldozers: Used for leveling the ground, pushing soil, digging and demolishing. Usually funerals with big knives.
- Loaders: Material handling, loading and unloading materials are used. It usually lifts and transports material with its scoops.
- Graders: Used in road construction, ground leveling and tillage operations. It flattens the soil and shapes the road surface.
- Concrete Pumps: It is used in the process of pumping concrete over high views or distant points. High pressure or pourer under concrete spraying.
- Rollers: Paving, ground compaction and leveling components are used. It creates a solid surface by compacting the soil or asphalt.
- Asphalt Pavers: These are machines used for road maintenance. It pours and spreads the asphalt properly and creates the road surface.
- Drilling Machines: Used in ground drilling operations, especially preferred in works such as foundation driving, drilling and bridge post installations.
- Cutting and Drilling Tools: Parts are used for cutting or drilling concrete, rock or other hard materials. With its special gear structure, it effectively breaks or cuts the material.
- Platforms: The construction zone is used to provide access to high points. It is used to guide workers and equipment up or down.
- Tunnel Diggers: These are the machines used by the tunnel dwellers. Digging or drilling the soil provides the construction book of the tunnel.
- Air Compressors: It is used to obtain the air pressure in the construction area. Operation of aircraft, drills and cleaning equipment.
This is just a few examples of some construction machines and their features. The speed of the machines used in the construction industry is quite high, and each one is designed to perform a specific job more effectively and efficiently.
Excavators: Machines Used for Ground Scraping and Material Handling
Excavators are the most widely used construction machines in the construction industry and can perform a wide variety of tasks. They are used in many operations such as digging, material handling, ground leveling, excavation work and foundation building. Usually gauges with large, powerful and hydraulic forces.
Excavators are complex machines, usually with the following production:
- Body: It is the basic building block of the machine and takes the others. The hull is usually placed on tracks or tire features.
- Cab: The cab, which is the operator's workspace, is usually located at the top of the excavator. The cabinet has been designed to provide disposal facilities and to offer an ergonomic working environment.
- Hydraulic Arms: One of the most characteristic features of excavators is hydraulic arms. These levers, hydraulic cylinders and pistons are controlled. The arms are used with various attachments to accumulate operations such as excavation, lifting and transport.
- Buckets: One of the most common attachments of excavators, buckets are used to dig, steer and guide material. Buckets are of different types and are interchangeable depending on their income and features.
- Tracks or Rubber Wheels: Excavators have tracks or tires that provide mobility. Tracked excavators provide stability and maneuverability. Wheeled excavators, on the other hand, have the advantage of being able to move faster and work more comfortably on flat surfaces.
Excavators perform many important functions on construction sites. Excavators are used when digging equipment, soil or material is removed. Material handling material, loading material using scoops and transporting it to the desired location. They are also used in a variety of tasks such as ground leveling, trenching, foundation building, trenching, rock breaking and excavation work.
Excavators are controlled and operated by operators. The operator controls the movement of the excavator and the operation of the installations via the in-cab control panel, joysticks and pedals.
As a result, excavators are powerful and versatile machines that play an important role in excavation, material handling and many other construction jobs. With technological developments, it has become an indispensable tool on the roads and weight of excavators and in the construction industry.
Cranes: Machines Used in Cargo Transport and Lifting Operations
Cranes are machines that are widely used in the construction industry and use heavy loads for walking, forcing and purpose. Used in high-rise construction, material handling, ship ports, mining, shipyards and other industries.
- Mobile Cranes: They are portable and easily positioned cranes. They usually move on rubber wheels or tracks. They are widely used in construction sites.
- Tower Cranes: These are cranes with high lifting capacity used in situations such as the construction of tall buildings. They are usually mounted at a fixed point and have a long lift arm.
- Tower Cranes: These are cranes with high lifting capacity used in situations such as the construction of tall structures. They are usually mounted at a fixed point and have a long lift arm.
- Ship Cranes: These are the cranes used for loading and unloading ships in ports. They have a high lifting capacity and are usually placed on the ship.
- Gantry Cranes: These are cranes that cover a wide area and are used for the transport of materials. They are mounted on a rail system and can carry large weights.
Bulldozers: Machines Used for Ground Leveling and Demolition
Graders are machines that are widely used in the construction industry for works such as road construction, ground leveling, tillage and smoothing. These machines are generally heavy duty machines with large blades and track or wheeled chassis. Graders are designed for leveling the ground, pushing, digging and arranging soil or materials.
The basic components and working principle of the graders are:
- Blade: The most distinctive feature of the graders is their large blades. Blades are used for leveling the ground, pushing and arranging soil or materials. The blades can generally move up and down with hydraulic systems and their inclination can be adjusted.
- Tracks or Wheels: Graders can be designed with tracks or wheels. Crawler graders provide stability and have better maneuverability in difficult terrain conditions. Wheel graders, on the other hand, can move faster and work more efficiently on flat surfaces.
- Engine: Diesel engines are generally used in graders. These motors provide the power and operate the hydraulic systems, blades and other moving parts.
Concrete Pumps: Machines Used in Concrete Pouring and Reaching High Places
Concrete pumps are machines that use concrete casting parts in the construction industry and contain a high percentage of concrete. These machines are used to style concrete quickly and effectively and are particularly ideal for tall building construction, bridges, dams and other large projects. Concrete pumps help concrete overcome height and distance barriers and reduce downtime.
Rollers: Machines Used in Road Compaction and Ground Leveling Operations
Rollers are machines used in road compaction and ground leveling in the construction industry. These machines are widely used in road construction projects, infrastructure works and ground preparation work. Rollers compact and smooth materials such as soil, sand, gravel and asphalt. It also increases the durability of the floor and creates a flat surface.
Maintenance and Repair of Construction Machinery
Maintenance and repair of construction machinery is essential to improve the performance, efficiency and life of machinery. Below are some basic steps and precautions for maintenance and repair of construction machinery:
- Periodic Maintenance: Regular periodic maintenance of construction machines ensures smooth operation of the machines. These maintenances include changing the engine oil, changing the filter, lubricating, cleaning the fuel system and checking other components. Following the machine manufacturer's recommendations ensures correct periodic maintenance.
- Cleaning: Regular cleaning of machines prevents the accumulation of dirt and dust that affects their operation. The outer surfaces of the machines, engine compartments, air filters and cooling systems should be cleaned and cleaning products should be used when necessary.
- Lubrication: It is important to properly lubricate the moving parts of the machines. Lubrication points should be checked regularly and lubrication should be done when necessary. Proper lubrication reduces friction and prevents wear.
- Change of Filters: Oil, air and fuel filters should be changed regularly. Dirty filters can adversely affect engine performance and cause serious damage. Timely replacement of filters is important for the proper functioning of the filtration system.
- Electrical and Hydraulic System Control: The smooth operation of the electrical and hydraulic systems ensures that the machines operate efficiently and safely. It is important that these systems are checked regularly and maintained when necessary. Cables for damage, leaks or connection problems should be checked and corrected.
- Operator Training: It is important to train operators for the correct use, maintenance and repair of machines. Proper use of machines by operators helps prevent problems caused by misuse.
- Authorized Services: Having periodical maintenance and important repairs of construction machines at authorized services ensures correct interventions. Authorized services provide more efficient maintenance and repair of machines as they have expert technicians.
The maintenance and repair of construction machinery is of great importance for ensuring safe working conditions, prolonging the life of the machinery and protecting the investment. Following the maintenance and repair instructions of the machine manufacturers and getting expert help ensures that the machines work efficiently and safely.